比较级的变化规则(形容词比较级和最高级变化规则)

比较级的变化规则

形容词比较级和最高级变化规则
形容词级的变化规律和级的用法:
一、形容词级的变化:
1、规律变化:
单音词的变化:(四条)
①一般情况: +er(比较级) +est(最高级)
eg :quiet–quieter–the quietest
bright–brighter—the brightest 明亮/聪明的
dear–dearest–the dearest
clever–cleverer–the cleverest
②词末为–e(不发音)+ r –+st
eg:fine–finer–the finest
nice–nicer–the nicest
cute–cuter–the cutest
close–closer–the closest
white–whiter–the whitest
large–larger–the largest
free–freer–freest(特殊)
③重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母的:
双写辅音字母+er–双写辅音字母+est
eg:hot–hotter–the hottest
big –bigger–the biggest
red–redder–the reddest
wet–wetter–the wettest
sad–sadder–the saddest
fat–fatter–the fattest
thin–thinner–the thinnest
fit–fitter–fittest
④少数以辅音字母+y结尾的双音节 原根词:
变y为i+er 变y为i+est
形容词和副词用法比较
形容词和副词形容词和副词在语法结构中主要用于比较级和最高级。形容词和副词的构成形式基本上一样,它们的形式与单音节、双音节和多音节有关,当然还有其特殊形式。形容词和副词比较级的基本用法分为同级比较、比较级和最高级三种形式。但这三种形式都有它们特殊的表达方式以及它们的惯用法。对以下要点大家须一一掌握。
第一节 形容词比较级和最高级的形式
一、形容词比较级和最高级的构成
形容词的比较级和最高级变化形式规则如下
构 成 法 原 级 比 较 级 最 高 级
① 一般单音节词末尾加er 和 est strong stronger strongest
② 单音节词如果以e结尾,只加r 和st strange stranger strangest
③ 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有 一个辅音字母,
须先双写这个辅音字母,再加er和est sad
big
hot sadder
bigger
hotter saddest
biggest
hottest
④ 少数以y,er(或ure),ow,ble结尾的双音节词,
末尾加er和est(以y结尾的词,如y前是辅音字母,
把y变成i,再加er和est,以e结尾的词仍
只加r和st) angry
clever
narrow
noble angrier
cleverer
narrower
nobler angrest
cleverest
narrowest
noblest
⑤ 其他双音节和多音节词都在前面加单词more和most different more
different most
different
1) The most high 〔A〕 mountain in 〔B〕 the world is Mount Everest, which is situated 〔C〕 in Nepal and is
twentynine thousand one hundred and fourty one feet high 〔D〕 .
2) This house is spaciouser 〔A〕 than that 〔B〕 white 〔C〕 one I bought in Rapid City, South Dakota 〔D〕 last year.
3) Research in the social 〔A〕 sciences often proves difficulter 〔B〕 than similar 〔C〕 work in the physical 〔D〕 sciences.
二、形容词比较级或最高级的特殊形式:
1. 三个或三个以上音节的形容词只能加more和most
只能说 more beautiful而不能说beautifuller; 只能说the most beautiful而不能说beautifullest。
但是,以形容前缀un结尾的三音节形容词不适合上述情况,如unhappy,untidy,我们可以说:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest
2. 由ING分词和ED分词演变过来的形容词(包括不规则动词如know→known)只能加more或most来表示它们的比较级和最高级
more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more(most)worn等。
4) The drawings 〔A〕 of the old masters 〔B〕 are among the treasuredest 〔C〕 works in museums 〔D〕 .
3. 英语里有些形容词由于其词义而不可能有比较级形式
absolute fatal main right universal
chief final naked simulta- utter
entire foremost perfect neous vital
eternalinevitablepossiblesufficientwhole 
excellent infinite primary supreme wooden
三、不规则形容词的比较级和最高级形式
good
well betterbest
bad
illworseworst
many
much moremost
little
few lessleast
far fartherfarthest
furtherfurthest
5) African elephants are larger, fiercer, and difficulter 〔A〕 to tame 〔B〕 than 〔C〕 Asian elephants 〔D〕 .
6) Sarah Hale became 〔A〕 one of the famousest 〔B〕 magazine 〔C〕 editors in the United States during 〔D〕 the 1800’s.
7) Of all 〔A〕 the Native American tribes 〔B〕 , the Shawnee Indians were 〔C〕 a most 〔D〕 transient.
四、例题解析 
1) A错。应将”most high”改为highest。这是在考形容词比较级的构成形式。
2) A错。改为more spacious。
3) B错。 改为more difficult。
4) C错。 treasured 在本句中是ED分词(动词treasure +ed)作形容词使用,是”宝贵的、珍贵的”意思,修饰名词 works(作品),其最高级形式应用 the most treasured。
5) A错,改为more difficult。
6) B错。改为”the most famous”,因为famous(著名的)是双音节,其最高级变化应在前面加”the most”。
7) D错。应改为”the most”,因为此处表示的是最高级,”the most transient”意为”(延续时间)最短暂的”。
第二节副词比较级和最高级的形式
副词比较级和最高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样 
一般副词
hard→harder →hardest
fast→faster →fastest
late→later →latest
early→earlier →earliest
特殊副词
well →better →best
much →more →most
badly →worse →worst
little →less →least 但是,开放类副词即以后缀ly结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加er或est,如
quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly
〔注〕: early中的ly不是后缀,故可以把y变i再加er和est
第三节 形容词与副词比较级和最高级的基本用法
一、原级比较的基本用法
1. 原级比较由”as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语)+as “构成”原级相同”比较句,表示两者比较;其否定式,即”程度不及”比较句型为”not so(as) +形容词或副词+as”,而且as…as结构前可用just, almost, nearly, quite等表示程度的词修饰
1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .
〔A〕 to run for fifteen minutes
〔B〕 running for fifteen minutes
〔C〕 you run for fifteen minutes
〔D〕 fifteenminute walking
2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while 〔A〕 not quite as curious than 〔B〕 the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence 〔C〕 and memory retention(记忆力) in solving 〔D〕 a problem.
3) Alaska is twice 〔A〕 as larger 〔B〕 as 〔C〕 the next largest 〔D〕 state, Texas.
2. “as (so)+名词+as+名词”进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的比较词,但如果第一名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用so而不用as
4) Thomas Jefferson’s achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.
〔A〕 such
〔B〕 more
〔C〕 as
〔D〕 than
5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter. (88年考题)
〔A〕 that
〔B〕 so
〔C〕 this
〔D〕 as
二、比较级
1. 比较级由”形容词(副词)比较级+than+…,”构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方”更加…”。连词than后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词不定式、ING结构和ED结构,有时也可省去than。
6) Natural mica(云母) of 〔A〕 a superior 〔B〕 quality is cheapest 〔C〕 to obtain than synthetic 〔D〕 mica.
7) She is older than .
〔A〕 any other girl in the group
〔B〕 any girl in the group
〔C〕 all girls in the group
〔D〕 you and me as well as the group
8) Josephine McCrackin joined 〔A〕 the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late 〔B〕 , remained 〔C〕 active in journalistic 〔D〕 work.
2. 注意than前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致
9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .
〔A〕 ours
〔B〕 with us
〔C〕 for ours it had
〔D〕 it did for us
10) Sound travels air.
〔A〕 faster through water than through 〔B〕 faster than through water and
〔C〕 through water faster and〔D〕 where it is faster through water than through
11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand’s pupils, followed 〔A〕 the style of his teacher so implicitly that 〔B〕 his paintings 〔C〕 are sometimes confused with his master 〔D〕 .
三、最高级
1. 最高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是”定冠词+形容词最高级+名词+表示范围的短语或从句”(如all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place等)
12) The more 〔A〕 fearsome of all the 〔B〕 animals in 〔C〕 the Western 〔D〕 Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.
13) Of all economic 〔A〕 problems, inflation continues to be 〔B〕 a 〔C〕 most significant in its daily impact on 〔D〕 people and business.
14) , the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.
〔A〕 All the activities
〔B〕 The activities
〔C〕 Of all the activities
〔D〕 It is the activities
2. 副词的最高级与形容词最高级的区别在于最高级前没有定冠词the
四、例题解析
1) B为正确答案。
2) B错。改为 as ,和前面的as和形容词原形curious 一起构成同程度比较。
3) B错。 改为as large。
4) C对。动词rival(胜过、匹敌)前后是两个相比较的成分achievements(成果)和 contributions(贡献),由于前面的名词后出现了短语 as an architect,故空白处也应用as,使前后对比成分一致。
5) B为正确答案。
6) C错。应改为比较级cheaper。比较级后并不一定跟接连词than,有时在其间有名词或名词短语(被形容词所修饰),介词短语,不定式或其他成分隔开。
7) A为正确答案。”She”作为单个不能跟全组比(C和D不对),也不能跟全组所有相比,因为”她”也是其中一员,自然”她”不能跟自己相比。这里”She”比较的是”这组中的任何一个”,所以A对。
8) B错。应改为比较级later,因此处实为与1905年相比晚15年,故应使用比较级。
9) D为正确答案。
10) A为正确答案。
11) D错。 改为his master’s。
12) A错。 改为most。
13) C错。改为the, significant是多音节形容词,在此处应用最高级形式(在前面加 the most),注意句中的”of all… “。
14) C为正确答案。本句空白处缺状语,A和B全为名词短语,不符合条件;D为句子,和空白后面的句子没有任何联系,故亦应排除。只有C正确,和后面的最高级the most familiar前后呼应。
第四节 形容词和副词的特殊表达法
一、形容词与副词的同级比较: 由”as(so)…as”引出,其否定式为”not so…”或”not as…as”,考生还应注意下列含有”as”结构或短语的句子
1. as such:表示上文所指明的事或人
He is a child,and must be treated as such. 他是个孩子,必须被当作孩子对待。
2. as much:表示”与…同量”
Take as much as you like. 拿多少都行。
I would gladly have paid twice as much for it. 就是价格再贵一倍,我也会愿意把它买下的。
He as much as admitted the whole story. 他几乎全部承认了。
3. as many:表示”与…一样多”
I found six mistakes in as many lines. 我在六行中发现了六个错。
二、表示”几倍于”的比较级:用twice (两倍),four times (四倍),ten times (十倍)加上as … as 结构
This one is four times as big as that one. 这个是那个的四倍大。(这个比那个大三倍。) / Our campus is three times as large as yours. 我们的校园比你们的大两倍。 / He has books twice as many as she does. 他的书比她多一倍。
1) The fiveyear deal obligates 〔A〕 the country to buy nine million tons 〔B〕 of grain a year 〔C〕 , three million more as 〔D〕 the old pact’s minimum.
三、”the same +名词+as”表示同等比较
2) The lens of a camera performs the lens of the eye.
〔A〕 in the same function 〔B〕 the same function as
〔C〕 the function is the same as 〔D〕 and has the same function
3) The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would
have as the amount of money borrowed.
〔A〕 as the same value 〔B〕 the same value
〔C〕 value as the same 〔D〕 the value is the same
四、比较级前可用a little, a bit, slightly, a great deal, a lot,many, much等词语表示不定量,far, completely,still表示程度或更进一步
4) There are now methods for studying color vision in infants than there once were.
〔A〕 more sophisticated than
〔B〕 much more sophisticated
〔C〕 much sophisticated
〔D〕 sophisticated
5) The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are than those taken from the Earth.
〔A〕 clearest
〔B〕 the clearest
〔C〕 much clearer
〔D〕 more clearer
6) Common porpoises(海豚) are usually not considered 〔A〕 migratory, although 〔B〕 some do move 〔C〕 to more warmer 〔D〕 waters in winter.
兼有两种形式的副词
1) close与closely
close意思是”近”; closely 意思是”仔细地”
He is sitting close to me.
Watch him closely.
2) late 与lately
late意思是”晚”; lately 意思是”最近”
You have come too late.
What have you been doing lately?
3) deep与deeply
deep意思是”深”,表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,”深深地”
He pushed the stick deep into the mud.
Even father was deeply moved by the film.
4) high与highly
high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much
The plane was flying high.
I think highly of your opinion.
5) wide与widely
wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是”广泛地”,”在许多地方”
He opened the door wide.
English is widely used in the world.
6) free与freely
free的意思是”免费”;freely 的意思是”无限制地”
You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.
You may speak freely; say what you like.
形容词使用顺序巧记忆
当两个以上形容词修饰一个名词,形容词该如何排列? 为什么不能说a black new pen,而要说成a new black pen? 这里面有无规则可循?
如果你记住Opshacom这个为帮助记忆而杜撰的词,就能掌握英语中形容词排列的顺序。
Opshacom中op代表opinion,指表示人们观点的形容词,如beautiful,horrible,lovely,nice等;
sh代表shape,指表示形状的形容词,如long,short,round, narrow等;
a代表age,指表示年龄、时代的形容词,如old,new, young等;
c代表colour,指表示颜色的形容词,如red,black, orange等;
o代表origin,指表示国籍、地区的形容词,如British,Canadian,German等;
m代表material,指表示材料的形容词,如plastic,metal,aluminium等。
英语中这六类形容词连用时就按上述先后顺序排列,如a nice long new black British plastic pen当然,实际语言使用中不可能出现这么多形容词连用的情况。
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